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**MIMS現象数理カフェセミナー
MIMS Cafe Seminar**

世話人： PARK Hyunjoon

（研究・知財戦略機構 研究推進員（ポスト・ドクター）／MIMS研究員）

- 主催：明治大学先端数理科学インスティテュート(MIMS)
- 場所：明治大学中野キャンパス8F談話室

日時：2024年8月28日(水) 12:40～13:20

場所：中野キャンパス8F談話室

Mori Ryunosuke (Meiji University)Abstract:

We consider blocking and propagation phenomena of mean curvature flow with a driving force in two-dimensional cylinders with spatially undulating boundary. In this problem, Matano, Nakamura and Lou in 2006, 2013 characterize the effect of the shape of the boundary to blocking and propagation of the solutions under some slop condition of the boundary that implies time global existence of the classical solutions. In this talk, we consider the effect of the shape of the boundary to blocking and propagation of this problem under more general situation that the solutions may develop singularities near the boundary.

日時：2024年7月31日(水) 12:40～13:20

場所：中野キャンパス8F談話室

PARK, Hyunjoon (Meiji University)Abstract:

Allen-Cahn equation is an equation to model the phase separation of a substance with two stable steady states and was used to model phenomena occurring in various situations such as metal alloy or cell polarization. In this lecture, unlike usual linear diffusion, we consider anisotropic and nonlinear diffusion Allen-Cahn equation which leads to a different interface motion compared to Allen-Cahn equation. In addition, we also consider a porous-medium diffusion, where we assume that the substance does not diffuse when the density is zero. We observe that such feature may cause different movement between the interface and boundary of the support.

日時：2024年2月7日(水) 12:40～13:20

場所：中野キャンパス8F談話室

HISAMOTO, Shumpei (Meiji University)Abstract:

Ants, small insects with lengths ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters, are known for their collective behavior that surpasses human capabilities. The presenter has focused on the study of cooperative transport, a group behavior where multiple individuals carry a single object (food). Cooperative transport is a highly advanced and complex behavior among ant group activities. While many studies have aimed to clarify its mechanisms, little research has been conducted on another significant question: why the trait of cooperative transport has developed. Therefore, the presenter employed mathematical models and interspecies comparative experiments to identify the essential elements for the development of cooperative transport in ant species.

日時：2023年11月29日(水) 12:40～13:20

場所：中野キャンパス8F談話室

SHIMABUKURO, Ui (Meiji University)Abstract:

Multi-colony studies of breeding seabirds may provide insights into the mechanistic links between large-scale climate variability and local changes in prey availability. To examine how inter-annual variability in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), a dominant climate index, affects rhinoceros auklets Cerorhinca monocerata across the North Pacific, we measured inter-annual changes in nutritional stress of adults breeding on 5 colonies. We also examined concurrent changes in mass and energy content of food loads delivered to chicks. We found that higher summer PDO values were associated with increased stress levels and lower mass and energy contents of the food loads in both the western and eastern North Pacific colonies. Our results highlight the complexity of the mechanisms of how large-scale climate variability affects seabirds with a large geographical distribution.

日時：2023年10月25日(水) 12:40～13:20

場所：中野キャンパス8F談話室

KUZE, Masakazu (Meiji University)Abstract:

Self-propelled droplet systems are widely studied in the research field of active matter. In this study, the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, which is an oscillating chemical reaction, was introduced into the system to observe the self-propulsion and deformation of BZ droplets.

The BZ droplet in an oil phase exhibited an amoeba-like motion depending on the spatio-temporal patterns inside the droplet. The directions of motion of the BZ droplet were determined by the directions of propagating chemical waves. Also, the directions of chemical waves were changed by the motion or deformation of the BZ droplet, and as a result, a reciprocating motion was observed.

日時：2023年7月26日(水) 12:40～13:20

場所：中野キャンパス8F談話室

PARK, Hyunjoon (Meiji University)Abstract:

Allen-Cahn equation is an equation to model the phase separation of a substance with two stable steady states such as a metal alloy of iron and aluminum. According to this equation, the interface that separates the steady states moves with the speed equal to the mean curvature of the interface. In this talk, we study the interface motion of an Allen-Cahn equation where the diffusivity is no longer a constant, but a function of a density. I focus on deriving the interface motion equation formally, and give a sketch on how relate the Allen-Cahn equation and the interface motion equation.

日時：2023年6月21日(水) 12:40～13:20

場所：中野キャンパス8F談話室

ABE Aya (Meiji University)Abstract:

Origami engineering is a comprehensive engineering field that applies origami techniques to create various shapes and structures. It realizes a structure with high rigidity and variability while being compact and lightweight. In addition, it can also be an effective educational tool to cultivate creativity and imagination. In recent years, our researches have been carried out in the following 3 fields with the aim of expanding the possibilities of origami, which has developed as a traditional Japanese culture since ancient times.

- Origami design that turns what you see into origami
- Design and production that take advantage of the light and stiff characteristics of the origami structure
- Design and production that make use of the deployable structure of origami
Here, we will introduce some projects of origami engineering conducted at MIMS and their positions in the world.

日時：2023年5月31日(水) 12:40～13:20

場所：中野キャンパス8F談話室

MORI Ryunosuke (Meiji University)Abstract:

We study a free boundary problem associated with the curvature dependent motion of planar curves in some sectorial domain. In general, if the domain is sufficiently smooth (for example, continuously differentiable), then this kind of free boundary problem has a (weak) solution. However in our case, the domain has a corner and hence we cannot apply existing theory to our problem in order to construct and analyze a solution. In this talk, we focus on how to construct a solution and how the solution behave.

日時：2022年9月28日(水) 12:40～13:20

場所：8FラウンジとZoomのハイブリッド形式

TAKAHASHI Takuya (Meiji University)Abstract:

The Japanese language is characterized by the presence of pitch accents which distinguish words and phrases by the voice pitch assigned to each mora. The lexical accent of Japanese, however, is extremely diverse, and a variety of accent systems are observed in different dialect regions. This study aims to infer the phylogenetic relationship among various pitch accent systems over the mainland of Japan, taking into account both the transition of accent patterns and the geographic diffusion of dialects. In accordance with traditional studies of comparative dialectology, I perform a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis based on the accent patterns for word classes, proposed by Haruhiko Kindaichi. The method quantifies the posterior distribution of the phylogenetic tree by modelling the geographic contact patterns and the integration of word classes on the tree branches.

日時：2022年7月20日(水) 12:40～13:20

場所：8FラウンジとZoomのハイブリッド形式

HISAMOTO Shumpei (Meiji University)Abstract:

Some species of ants perform cooperative transport, in which multiple individuals carry a single object. The degree of coordination in cooperative transport differs between species, some species perform pseudo cooperative transport, which is practically the same as a single individual carrying an object, while some species achieve highly coordinated one through the division of roles. However, highly coordinated cooperative transport is not always superior to pseudo cooperative transport with respect to transport efficiency. In addition, the factors underlying the difference between the two types of cooperative transport have not been identified. Therefore, in this presentation, I introduce our experiments of different approaches for various species to understand cooperative transport in ants.

日時：2022年7月6日(水) 12:40～13:20

場所：8FラウンジとZoomのハイブリッド形式

SHIMABUKURO Ui （Meiji University)Abstract:

To understand how migratory seabirds meet the energetic challenges associated with wing molt and wintering, a full annual cycle behavioral study is needed. We studied the diving and flying activities of three Rhinoceros Auklets Cerorhinca monocerata migrating in the northwestern Pacific. The auklets showed little flight time (＜1 hr/day) for about 7 weeks in mid-August to September while they were in the Sea of Okhotsk, suggesting that they molted primary feathers during this period. During this molt period, daily dive times were shorter and maximum dive depth shallower, suggesting that the molt of primary feathers slightly compromised their diving ability. Dives occurred mostly between sunrise and sunset, and were deeper during winter (~81 m), when auklets were in the Sea of Japan. We suggest that Rhinoceros Auklets adjust their diving and flying behaviors in response to wing molt and energy demands in winter.

日時：2022年6月22日(水) 12:40～13:20

場所：8FラウンジとZoomのハイブリッド形式

KUZE Masakazu （Meiji University)Abstract:

Spatio-temporal oscillations confined to quasi-2D surface layers or 3D volumes play an important role for wave-based information relay and global oscillations in living systems. The Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, which self-organizes spatio-temporal patterns based on autocatalytic redox reactions, is a widely studied experimental system. Here, we observed the pattern formation on/in the spherical microbeads in which the metal catalyst of the BZ reaction was loaded either onto the surface or in the body of the beads. Various oscillatory patterns, such as global oscillations, traveling waves, and spiral waves, were observed when the bead was immersed into a BZ solution without a catalyst. These results establish a useful model system for the study of geometrical effects on nonlinear chemical processes and provide diagnostic features that allow the distinction of membrane-mediated 2D and cytosolic 3D processes in biological cells.

日時：2022年6月8日(水) 12:40～13:20

（ZoomによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

NAKANO Naoto （Meiji University)Abstract:

Reservoir computing (RC) is one of the learning methods of recurrent neural networks (RNNs). Unlike general RNNs, it only learns the readout map to reduce the learning cost, but it can still be available for various tasks. Moreover, RC can emulate a dynamical system, which has recently been used for data-driven modelling. The performance of RC relies on the interaction between reservoir nodes. So the dynamics of a random network have been intensively investigated in terms of statistical physics. In this talk, we show some universality corresponding to RC. We have newly discovered that the behaviour of the random network in the thermodynamic limit can be classified according to the probability distribution that the components of the adjacency matrix follow. Furthermore, it is universally observed that the generalisation performance is high near the triple point of the phase diagram. Interestingly, this result shows a different aspect from the so-called edge-of-chaos. This is a joint work with Junichi Haruna and Riki Toshio (Kyoto University).

日時：2022年5月25日(水) 12:40～13:20

（ZoomによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

XIAO Dongyuan （Meiji University)Abstract:

日時：2022年3月17日(木) 13:30～14:10

（ZoomによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

MORI Ryunosuke （Meiji University)Abstract:

A family of hypersurfaces is called a mean curvature flow (MCF) if the velocity is equal to the mean curvature vector of the surface. In general, the family of surfaces moving by MCF may develop some singularity in finite time. A Brakke flow is one of generalized formulations of MCF to extend the flow past singularities. It is known that a Brakke flow is a classical solution if the flow satisfies an assumption called the unit density hypothesis. In this talk, we consider a smoothness of a Brakke flow of MCF with a given transport term in the case that the flow satisfies the unit density hypothesis.

日時：2022年2月1日(火) 13:30～14:10

（ZoomによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

Elliott Ginder （Meiji University)Abstract:

Numerical investigations of solutions to partial differential equations (PDE) are typically carried out on simple domains, such as straight lines and other flat surfaces. However, the vast majority natural phenomena (e.g., the beautiful pattern formations on the moldy doughnut shown in the figure below) involve surfaces with complex (non-flat) shapes. Consequently, in simulations and other topics contingent on the numerical ap- proximation of surface-constrained phenomena, it becomes necessary to account for the surface’s curvature. We will introduce an approximation method for realizing surface-constrained minimizing movements.

日時：2021年11月22日(月) 13:30～14:10

（ZoomによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

Yusaku Ohkubo （The Institute of Statistical Mathematics)Abstract:

Among biologists, the Phylogenetic Comparative Method (PCM) is an indispensable statistical tool to infer phenotypic evolution in a macro time scale (e.g. >1 million years). Nevertheless, its mathematical model has been quite simple because we cannot observe a past state of an organism, and thus strong assumptions are needed to yield a solvable problem. In this talk, I review recent methodologies of PCM and introduce a more flexible yet reliable approach based on a population genetics theory.

the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

日時：2021年9月29日(水) 13:30～14:10

（ZoomによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

SUEMATSU J. Nobuhiko （Meiji University)Abstract:

Variety of microorganisms show drastic change in their characteristics depending on the cell density. For example, production rate of glycolysis in Yeast is almost constant over time with low cell-density, whereas it oscillates in time with high cell-density [1]. Such “quorum sensing” behavior has been reproduced using the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction and one side of the fundamental mechanism was suggested using mathematical models [2]. In this case, the population density of the BZ systems were homogeneous in space. On the other hand, living cells spontaneously move and change their local cell density, resulting in quorum sensing in local. Here, we tried to realize such a local quorum sensing behavior by coupling self-propelled droplet and the BZ reaction. Our observations might be a primitive differentiation.

[1] S. Dano et al., Nature 402, 320 (1999).

[2] A. F. Taylor et al., Science 323, 614 (2009).

日時：2021年7月19日(月) 13:30～14:10

（ZoomによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

YAMAMOTO Eiji, Ph.D （Graduate School of Agriculture, Meiji University)Abstract:

Crops (plant species available for agriculture) have been improved for possessing various characteristics desirable for human through the process called “breeding.” “Breeding” has played important roles in people’s daily life as well as in the survival of the human race. The former is represented by good flavor of “Koshihikari” in rice and the latter is represented by the “Green revolution” that increased agricultural productivity dramatically from 1950s to 1960s. Until recently, breeding had been mainly performed with seat-of-the-pants of experienced breeders. However, in 2001, a new breeding approach called “Genomic Selection (GS)” of using statistical modelling was proposed. Since its proposal in 2001, GS has been applied in many practical breeding projects. In the early part of this talk, I will introduce what is “breeding” and how important it is. In the latter part, I will explain what GS is and how it uses statistical modelling.

日時：2021年6月21日(月) 13:30～14:10

（ZoomによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

TSUKAMOTO Yuki, Ph.D （Meiji University, MIMS)Abstract:

Mean curvature is a value that appears not only in mathematics, but also in various fields such as fluid mechanics and materials engineering. The prescribed mean curvature problem is the problem of finding a surface whose mean curvature is equal to a given function and it has been studied by numerous researchers in the case that a given function depends on the position of the space and surface. On the other hand, if a given function depends on the first derivative of a surface, the problem has been little studied. In this talk, I consider the existence of a surface whose mean curvature vector coincides with the normal component of a given vector field. Furthermore, I will explain how to construct the solution by the Allen-Cahn equation.

日時：2021年5月17日(月) 13:30～14:10

（ZoomによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

TSUJI Shunsuke, Ph.D （Meiji University, MIMS)Abstract:

In the study of topology, manifolds are one of the main themes and play an important role. In this talk, we introduce some examples of 2-manifolds and 3-manifolds. We can imagine them as some diagrams. Furthermore, in the study of 3-dimensional topology, knots and links are also very important. They are sets of circles or closed ribbons embedded in the space where we live. Topologists have constructed a lot of invariants of them. In this talk, we explain the Kauffman bracket, which is one of them. Using Dehn surgeries, knots and links are convenient to present 3-manifolds. Dehn surgeries and the Kauffman bracket make us construct some invariants for 3-manifolds. If we have enough time, we explain the Ohtsuki series and our recent work.

日時：2021年2月24日(水) 13:30～14:10

（オンラインによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

ITO Ryo （Meiji University, MIMS)Abstract:

Reaction-diffusion equations are important mathematical models in the study of propagation phenomenon. For example, biological invasion can be theoretically explained by traveling wave solutions of reaction-diffusion equations. In this talk, we consider the theory of traveling waves that includes a solution propagating from infinity. I will explain the difference from traveling wave solutions connecting two steady states. A typical example of the solution appears in the reaction-diffusion equation with the linear reaction term, and its explicit form is useful to predict the minimal speed of traveling wave solutions for nonlinear equations. Our aim is to reconsider the theory of the reaction-diffusion equation from the new viewpoint which we introduce in this talk, and find out a new sufficient condition for calculating the minimal speed. This talk is based on joint work with Hirokazu Ninomiya.

日時：2021年1月20日(水) 13:30～14:10

（オンラインによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

SEKISAKA Ayuki （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Reaction-Diffusion system (RDS) is expected to explain the pattern formation of chemical reactions, for example, animal epidermis pattern. In particular, localized spot solutions for RDS are fundamental solutions which are explaining the such phenomena. Arai et al. reported localized phenomena of chemical substance and motion of it on the cell membrane. It is one of our motivation, that is, we want to understand mathematical mechanism of motion of spot on the curved surface. In this talk, we will show that the motion of spot on the two-dimensional curved surface is determined by the dynamics on the center manifold.

日時：2020年12月9日(水) 13:30～14:10

（オンラインによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

ABE Aya （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

The light and highly rigid origami structures are expected to be applied to the floors of automobiles and trains. They also require excellent sound insulation characteristics. The finite element method (FEM) is expected to be applied to the evaluation of the sound insulation characteristics of complex structures. Since it does not easily match the theoretical value, it has still been studied mainly experimentally. Here, the developed high-precision and high-efficiency sound insulation characteristic evaluation method will be tried to apply to origami engineering.

日時：2020年11月25日(水) 13:30～14:10

（オンラインによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

YAMAZAKI Keiko （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Japanese traditional fan has the variety of 3D expression that does not arise in 2D expression. The painted image on the fan deforms, when it is folded into convex-concave configuration and fixed to the bamboo bones, due to the difference between the shrinking percentage of the outer arc and the inner arc. In this study, we try to have the digital fan model for clarifying the deformation on the fan face due to some parameters such as length of the bones. We also validate the digital model with the actual fan. Further, we try to obtain the original plan view from the images of the folded fan as one of the reverse problems.

日時：2020年11月11日(水) 13:30～14:10

（オンラインによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

YAMANAKA Osamu （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

To quantitatively investigate the movement of animals, image-based tracking software are used as valuable tools. Ordinarily tracking software consist of manual tracking tool and automatic tracking tool. Manual tool is time-consuming for the operation, and fully automatic tracking tool strongly limits the experiment conditions. Thus, we developed a semi-automatic tracking software. In this talk, I will explain the features of our software and actual cases of use. This is joint work with Rito Takeuchi.

日時：2020年10月21日(水) 13:30～14:10

（オンラインによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

NISHIMORI Hiraku （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Ants have evolved to the present forms from the same ancestor with bees, through which evolution process they have simplified their own structure and the behavior of each. In the on-going study, we introduced a new experimental method to analyze the statistical behavior of colonies of ants using very-tiny RFID tags attached to the bodies of all ants to recognize each. By analyzing the obtained “big-data of ant society” after more than three-months continuous measurement, we found various kinds of statistical structure of the ant society in which sophisticated task allocation among ants and its dynamical reorganization took place.

日時：2020年10月7日(水) 13:30～14:10

（オンラインによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

SHIRAISHI Masashi （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Well-organized collective behaviors of living matters are observed in many species and multiple spatiotemporal scales. In this talk, I introduce my theoretical studies on collective behaviors in living matters and our study on the mass foraging of ants. We theoretically studied the mass foraging with chemical pheromone, which enables ants to forage much feed efficiently, using numerical simulations with a multi-agent model. We especially focus on the relation between foraging efficiency and individual fluctuations. The study showed that the appropriate distribution of fluctuation in individual behavior exists to maximize efficiency while depending on the feeding environments. The result suggests that “task allocation” based on the fluctuation is important in an ant colony.

日時：2020年9月15日(火) 14:30～15:10

（オンラインによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

開催時間が変更になりました。

*There is a time change for the seminar. It will start at 14:30 instead of 13:30.*

HIRUTA Yoshiki （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Localized turbulence, which is turbulent state embedded in a stationary state, is observed in the incompressible flow, especially in wall-bounded flows. Turbulent region forms a beautiful pattern depending on the flow velocity. Such localized state has scientific and industrial interests related to mechanism of turbulence transition and prediction of drag force. On the other hand, laboratory and numerical experiments for localized turbulence are difficult because of its three dimensionality and scale separation. In this talk, I will show localized turbulence in two-dimensional simple fluid system, called Kolmogorov flow.

日時：2020年8月26日(水) 13:30～14:10

（オンラインによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

CHIBA Yuki （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

The discontinuous GalerkinGalerkin (DG) method is one of numerical methods for solving PDEs. We use a discontinuous function which is polynomial in each element and introduce a numerical flux on each boundary. The study of stability and convergence for linear problems developed well. But, analysis of DG method in consideration of applications has room for further study in comparison with those of other numerical methods (eg.FDM, FEM).

In this talk, I will show some analysis and numerical examples of DG method.

日時：2020年8月11日(火) 14:00～14:40

（オンラインによるWebセミナー開催 * Online: Webinar）

YAMAMOTO Takashi （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Understanding of spatial utilization of animals is essential to promote biodiversity conservation, animal damage control, and dispersion control of invasive species effectively. Recently, small animal-borne data loggers have been widely applied to record behavior of animals, called Bio-Logging. Each species has species-specific environmental preferences (i.e. ecological niche), and based on this premise, I try to estimate the probabilities of species distribution and abundance of wildlife animals using species-environment relationships, called habitat modeling. On the other hand, behavioural monitoring is also difficult for animals reared at farms and zoos. So, I have been recording acceleration of these animals using a data logger, and applied time-series analysis (e.g. hidden markov model) to estimate their behavior to establish low time- and effort-consuming monitoring approach for assessing animal’s quality of life.

日時：2019年10月16日(水) 12:40～13:20

Yui Matsuda （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Living organisms produce a wide variety of pattern formations. When understanding these phenomena, it is often very difficult to target a living organism directly because of its complexity. Model experiment systems and mathematical models that contain elements learned from living organisms are very useful as methods for understanding and generalizing the essence of complex life phenomena.

In this talk, I will explain roughly how to understand the essence of living organisms from a self-propelled system and a mathematical model.

日時：2019年1月23日(水) 12:40～13:20

Ryo Ito （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Propagation phenomena appear in various fields of natural science, including population genetics, epidemiology, ecology and so on. The spatially periodic Fisher-KPP equation is among the classical models that describe propagation phenomena. From the viewpoint of ecology, this equation describes the expansion of the territory of invading alien species in a given habitat. The periodic coefficients of the equation represent an environment in which favorable zones and less favorable zones appear alternately in a periodic manner. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of periodic environment on the invasion speed. In this talk, we discuss the problem of finding optimal periodic coefficient that minimizes the “spreading speed” under certain condition. The term “spreading speed” refers to the asymptotic speed of the propagating front of a solution with compactly supported initial data. From the ecological point of view, the spreading speed describes the invasion speed of alien species. Hence the problem means seeking the best disposition of environment to prevent the invasion of alien species. In order to solve this problem, we introduce a condition under which equality holds in an inequality about the spreading speed derived by Nadin.

日時：2018年12月21日(金) 12:40～13:20

Aya Abe （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

In the origami engineering, some approaches have been done that lead to fundamental and applicational research on the technical aspect for applying Origami to industries. Technology of Origami is used in various ways and development is expected. For example, folding methods that expand and contract large sheets are applied to space structures. Moreover, by folding small structures at the cell level, it is trying to be applied also to the medical field. On the other hand, the honeycomb structure is representative as a light and highly stiff structure and has been widely used as an internal structure of aircrafts or buffer material like cardboard so far. For this honeycomb structure, researches have been done on how to fabricate by folding from a single sheet.

Here, I will introduce two research themes I have worked on so far. One is the result of research on folding and crushing characteristics of pairing origami. The second one is about the research progress and future prospects for the transport box for fruits.

日時：2018年11月19日(月) 12:40～13:20

Ayuki Sekisaka （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

In our universe, there are several types of galaxies. By a shape of their own, they are also called a spiral galaxy, lenticular galaxy, elliptical galaxy and so on. In the study of galaxy formation and evolution, many researchers are interested in the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning. We also have an interest in the mechanism of pattern formation of the very massive interstellar medium, and unfortunately, the classical physics can not explain the spiral galaxies. One of the model of the self-gravitational interstellar gas clouds is given by the compressible Navier-Stokes-Poisson system (CNSP), and such self-gravitational collapse is called as the Jeans instability.

In this talk, we will show the dynamics of the 3-dimensional CNSP around the Jeans instability point. Second, we want to discuss about the next step of this problem with an audience. This is joint work with Hiroko Yamamoto (University of Tokyo) and Shota Enomoto (Keio University) and supported by MIMS Joint Research Project for Mathematical Sciences.

日時：2018年10月5日(金) 12:40～13:20

Kota Ohno （Meiji University, Graduate School of Advanced Mathematical Sciences）Abstract:

Pattern dynamics has been drawing attention in many research fields. Further, it has been explained using mathematical models. The Belousov–Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction is a famous experimental model for chemical oscillatory reaction and pattern formation. One can also control the pattern dynamics of the BZ reaction with Ruthenium catalysts by light illumination. Using this property, Vanag et. al. studied global feedback system for the photosensitive BZ reaction and observed anti-phase like oscillations such as standing waves in experimentally. We herein study a simple situation, i.e., diffusive coupled system of two oscillators with global feedback using the photosensitive BZ reaction, to clarify the type of mechanism that causes such anti-phase like behavior both experimentally and theoretically. We observed an in-phase oscillation and two types of anti-phase like oscillations. One is a typical anti-phase oscillation and the other is an alternate oscillation in which each oscillator shows strong and weak peaks alternately. Moreover, we analyzed our model to locate the bifurcational origin and found the reconnection of the bifurcation branches for both anti-phase like oscillations, which was induced by the competition between global feedback and diffusion effect.

*The date was changed to Sep. 19th. *

日時：2018年9月19日(水) 12:40～13:20

Axelle Fleury （MIMS, Agro Paris Tech)Abstract:

Tropical rainforests cover around 11 million km² of the earth surface and are distinguished by their astounding biodiversity, their essential role in the Earth climate system and the resources they provide to many human populations. The various threats laying upon these valuable ecosystems triggered protection or sustainable exploitation policies and also made even more critical the need to understand their functioning. Being highly complex and diverse environments, part of the research effort consists in designing models which allow to study the key mechanisms and get insight into the possible future of these forests. My work falls within the attempt to answer the following question: will tree species composition of rainforests be affected by the changing climate conditions? The issue has been approached through deterministic modelling, combined with the analysis of a field dataset from a Central African forest. The objective was to look for a model describing a tropical forest tree population, in terms of tree density, and that could account for multiple interactions between tree species groups and between trees and their environment.

日時：2018年7月20日(金) 12:40～13:20

Yu Uchiumi （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

In mutualism between unicellular hosts and their symbionts, symbiont’s cell division is often synchronized with its host’s. The synchronization ensures the permanent relationship between symbionts and their hosts. However, if symbionts stopped synchronizing their cell division and divided faster than their host, they would proliferate more efficiently. Thus, it seems to be paradoxical that symbionts evolve to limit their own cell division for the synchronization. Here, we theoretically explore the condition for the evolution of self-limited division of symbionts. Our analysis shows that symbionts decrease their cell division rate evolutionarily if not only symbiont’s but also host’s benefit through symbiosis is large. It means that, under mutualistic relationship, symbionts are willing to reduce their cell division rate even if hosts do not force symbionts to limit cell division. Moreover, our result indicates that mutualistic relationship should be established in advance of the evolution of synchronized cell division. This is a joint work with Hisashi Ohtsuki (SOKENDAI) and Akira Sasaki (SOKENDAI).

日時：2018年6月15日(金) 12:40～13:20

Lorenzo Contento （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

The competitive exclusion principle (CEP), one of the pillars of theoretical ecology, states that when two or more species are competing for the same limited resources only one can eventually survive, the other being driven to extinction. However, in nature many examples of rich biodiversity are observed. Several mechanisms that can lead to species coexistence are known, but most of them occur in situations where the CEP is not applicable. We are interested in studying how indirect competition dynamics can lead to coexistence (competitor-mediated coexistence), without any apparent contradiction with the CEP. The simplest such case is when two otherwise mutually exclusive species are able to coexist thanks to the influence of a competing exotic species. We investigate mathematically this mechanism by a three-species competition-diffusion system, which displays complex patterns of dynamical coexistence even when the exotic invader is “weak”.

日時：2018年5月10日(木) 12:40～13:20

Weiwei Ding （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the existence and qualitative properties of pulsating fronts for spatially periodic reaction-diffusion equations with bistable nonlinearities. Such an equation arises in modeling a variety of physical and biological phenomena. We focus especially on the influence of the spatial period and, under various assumptions on the reaction terms, we show several existence results when the spatial period is small or large. We also characterize the sign of the front speeds and show the global exponential stability and uniqueness of pulsating fronts with nonzero speed. Furthermore, we give an example where there is no pulsating front with nonzero speed but some non-stationary waves appear. This is a joint work with François Hamel (Aix-Marseille University) and Xiao-Qiang Zhao (Memorial University of Newfoundland).

日時：2018年2月14日(水) 12:40～13:20

Shota Enomoto （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

In physics, substances are classified into solid, liquid, and gas. Fluids are composed of liquid and gas. We can observe fluids in everyday life, for example, water, oil, alcohol, air and so on. When the stress tensor of a fluid is given by a linear function, that fluid is called a Newtonian fluid. The motion of a Newtonian fluid is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations or Euler equations. In this talk, we introduce a classification for some fluids and we discuss about the stability and asymptotic behavior of some solutions to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in an infinite layer.

日時：2018年1月31日(水) 12:40～13:20

Kabir Muhammad Humayun （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

The Neolithic transition is one of the most significant single developments in human history. Archeological evidence of Neolithic transition suggests that expanding velocity of farmers is roughly constant. To understand such phenomenon, many theoretical attempts have been progressed through mathematical modeling. Existing modeling approaches on Neolithic transition indicates that expanding velocity is faster than the observed one. For understanding of this difference, we propose a three-component reaction-diffusion system which involves two different types of farmers: sedentary and migratory ones. Moreover, we introduce the influence of farming technology on the spread of farmers. Our goal is to study the relation between the expanding velocity and farming technology. In this talk, we focus on the one-dimensional traveling wave solution with minimal velocity and finally our model suggests that the minimal velocity of traveling waves explains the spreading velocity of farmers, which becomes slow down when farming technology is suitably developed. This research is a joint work with Jan Elias (Univ. Graz, Austria), Je-Chiang Tsai (National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan) and Masayasu Mimura (Musashino Univ., Japan).

日時：2017年12月5日（火） 12:40～13:20

Yoshifumi Mimura （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

We introduce the Keller-Segel model for describing the aggregation phenomenon of certain microorganisms called “slime molds”, which have a characteristic property called chemotaxis. Chemotaxis is the motion toward higher concentration of a chemical substance. This kind of microorganism, when put in a nutrition-poor environment, produces a chemical substance that attracts other individuals within the same population. This leads to the formation of an aggregate which produces spores. In this way, the slime molds propagate the next generation. From a mathematical point of view, the aggregation phenomenon can be interpreted as the blow-up of the solution of two simultaneous partial differential equations. In this talk, we show that the blow-up solution never exists if the mass of the slime mold is less than a certain value.

日時：2017年10月26日（木） 12:40～13:20

Yoko Tanokura （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

With the advent of big data, statistics and data science for modeling data are becoming important. In this seminar, we will briefly explain statistical modeling that describes the fluctuation structure of phenomena based on observation data. Taking examples of familiar phenomena such as consumer prices and stock prices, we will introduce the charm of statistical modeling.

日時：2017年7月19日（水） 12:40～13:20

Nina Sviridova （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Biomedical signals have been intensively studied over the last decades to meet the need in extensive health monitoring in various areas, from patient's recovery evaluation to maintaining the wellbeing of exercising sportsmen. Although recent equipment and techniques allow one to record numerous biological signals containing rich and promising information regarding the various human body systems performance, still extracting useful information from these signals is a challenging task. In this talk challenges and approaches in analyzing complex biomedical signals will be discussed on the example of human photoplethysmogram. As well photoplethysmogram data recording will be demonstrated.

日時：2017年6月7日（水） 12:40～13:20

Masaki Moriguchi （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

A multi-view sculpture is an object that appears as drastically different shapes when viewed from different viewpoints. Some of impossible objects, such as "ambiguous cylinders", are special instances of multi-view sculptures, which evoke a sense of impossibility. In this talk, we present a method to compute a multi-view sculpture from in put 2D shapes and viewpoints. To create real physical sculptures, we analyze the topological and geometric properties, and our method considers connectivity, material usage and smoothness of the computed sculpture. Some issues in fabricating sculptures with 3D printers are discussed, and we show preliminary computational results and 3D printed sculptures.

日時：2017年5月10日（水） 12:40～13:20

Tomoyuki Miyaji （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Dynamical systems theory provides a useful framework for understanding phenomena in which the state changes dynamically as time passes. In particular, Conley’s fundamental theorem of dynamical systems tells us that any dynamical system can be decomposed into recurrent components and gradient components which connect between the recurrent components. This allows us to describe a dynamical system by a finite directed graph. Although it is difficult to obtain such a decomposition for a concrete example by hand, recent developments of computers and numerical methods have enabled us to obtain it by utilizing a computer. The finite graph description of a dynamical system associated with the Conley indices, which represents the topology and stability of the corresponding recurrent component, is called the Conley-Morsegraph. We briefly introduce a numerical method for computing the Conley-Morse graph for a given dynamical system, and we would like to share some difficulties to overcome.

日時：2017年4月26日（水） 12:40～13:20

Kokichi Sugihara （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Impossible objects were first proposed as imaginary 3D structures that exist only in our brains when we see anomalous pictures. It had long been believed that they cannot be realized as actual 3D solids unless we use tricky structures such as discontinuities that appear continuous or curved surfaces that appear planar. However, we found that some of impossible objects can be constructed without those tricks. Starting with this discovery, we have extended the sense of impossibility to various forms. They include “impossible motions”, “ambiguous cylinders”, “partly invisible objects” and “topology-disturbing objects”. We present a mathematical model for understanding pictures of 3D objects, which was first considered for computer vision but also useful for understanding human vision, and show how it can be used for creating new types of impossible objects.

日時：2016年12月13日（火） 12:10～12:50

Hiroe Abe （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Previously for the analysis of Iyashi structure, the mapping function which is obtained from fixtures of facial expressions to the judge by the subject whether the data is healed or not to the subject. This accuracy is determined by the type of inputs and it is not always the general way to select the input data. In recent years, deep learning has been a great concern, because the input data itself is possibly to be provided from the big amounts of data. However, the amount and quality of big data depend on the problem and not yet general-purpose ones are obtained. In this study, the healing structure is given as an example to consider the quality and quantity in the big data.

日時：2016年11月7日（月） 12:10～12:50

Ayuki Sekisaka （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Eigenvalue problems are applied in many applications in physics, engineering and in other areas of science. In many cases of mathematics, they are solved by analytical or algebraic approaches. Here, there are other approaches, that is, topological approaches. The topological viewpoint gives simple and beautiful mechanism of mathematics, and is sometimes very convenient in application. In this talk, we roughly explain what is the topological viewpoint of eigenvalue problem with a brief history of topology.

日時：2016年10月17日（月） 12:10～12:50

Yumihiko S. Ikura （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Previously, the self-propelled system driven by the camphor has been understood not only experimentally but also theoretically, e.g., the traffic jam of camphor boats on an annular water channel. In a lot of these studies, to avoid unnecessary complexity, some elements (such as solutal Marangoni convection and fluctuation of water level) were ignored as inconsequential. However, some further suggestions might become impaired. In this café seminar, I would like to introduce some of camphor systems that these elements are thought to be essential for, and claim that this system will include more suggestions.

日時：2016年7月11日（月） 12:10～12:50

Tomoyuki Miyaji （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

The Lugiato-Lefever equation (LLequation) is a damped driven nonlinear Schrödinger equation with cubicnonlinearity. It was derived by Lugiato and Lefever as a model equation for pattern formation in nonlinear optics in 1987. It exhibits a rich bifurcation structure, e.g. snaking bifurcation of spatially localized structures, breathing localized structure, and spatiotemporal chaos. Nowadays, it is attracting more and more attention in a different context of nonlinear optics. In his caféseminar, we show a brief history of the LL equation as well as a part of our recent interest in this subject.

日時：2016年6月6日（月） 12:10～12:50

Supanut Chaidee （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Recently, we proposed a method for fitting real world tessellations, spike-containing objects, using spherical Voronoi diagram and spherical Laguerre Voronoi diagram (SLVD). From the SLVD fitting experiments using ideal data, it leads to the theoretical study of the properties of a polyhedron corresponding to the SLVD. Using those properties, we can solve the SLVD recognition problem, the judgment whether or not the given convex spherical tessellation is SLVD. We finally apply the recognition algorithm to find the best-fitting SLVD to the given spherical tessellation when generators are not included explicitly in the tessellation, which is a generalization of the spike-containing objects. We are now doing the experiments using sugar apple and raspberry photographic images.This works is supervised by Prof. Kokichi Sugihara.

**The Lecture date has been changed to May 9th, 2016

※開催日が5月9日に変更になりました変更後の開催日時：2016年5月9日（月） 12:10～12:50

Ichiro Hagiwara （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Around 1970, for boycotting Japanese cars, astrict safety standard was newly provided in U.S. Since a testcar is around 1 billion yen, to reduce the number of testcars for verifying crash characteristics became the biggest subject concerning the continued existence of vehicle companies over the world. At that time, finite element method(FEM) had been exerting high power in vibration analysis, however had been helpless in collision analysis. I'll talk how to develop the technique for collision simulation using FEM. Also, I’ll tell the road to victory in NHK TV show “Sugowaza(Supreme Skills)” by explaining the relationship between origami engineering and vehicle collision simulation.

日時：2015年10月21日（水） 12:10～12:50

Supanut Chaidee （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

In nature, there are many tessellation patterns on curved surfaces that look like Voronoi diagrams. Typical examples are the patterns found on fruit skins. Verifying that a given tessellation is a Voronoi diagram will be useful for constructing mathematical models of polygonal patterns. However, the data are usually obtained as a 2D projected image, and hence it is not easy to compare it with a Voronoi diagram on a curved surface. We propose frameworks for using a photograph of a fruit to measure the difference between the pattern on its skin and a spherical Voronoi diagram. The problem of finding the spherical Voronoi diagram that best fits the fruit skin pattern is reduced to an optimization problem. In addition, we also find the spherical Laguerre Voronoi diagrams which best fit to the planar tessellations. The validity of this formulation is evaluated using jackfruit and lychee.

日時：2015年7月22日（水） 12:10～12:50

Chie Nara （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Can we flatten an empty box of paper without cutting and stretching? According to the Cauchy rigidity Theorem (1813) and the Sabitov volume Theorem (1996), it is necessary to change the shape of some faces by moving edges for such motion. Generally, a problem which was proposed by Eric Demaine et al. in 2001 asks to find a continuous flattening motion for any given polyhedron. If the polyhedron is convex, such continuous flattening motion was given with a few methods by the author et al. recently. In this talk, the key ideas are introduced and some future works are proposed.

日時：2015年6月24日（水） 12:10～12:50

Yoshitaro Tanaka （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

Phyllotactic patterns in plants are well known to be related to the golden ratio and Fibonacci sequence. Actually, many mathematical models using the theoretical inhibitory effect were proposed to reproduce these phyllotactic patterns. In 1996, Douady and Couder introduced a model using magnetic repulsion and succeeded in reproducing phyllotactic patterns numerically. On the other hand, it was recently revealed in biological experiments that a plant hormone, auxin, regulates the phyllotactic formation as an activator. Then, there arises a natural question as tohow the inhibitory effect can be related to the auxin. In this talk, we will propose a reaction diffusion model by taking account of auxin behavior in plant tips. This model can link the auxin behavior of the activator to the inhibitory effect in the stem tip. Moreover, we will show the relationship between Douady and Couder’s model and our model by singular limit analysis. It also provides us with the potential function corresponding to the inhibitory effect, and the bifurcation diagram.

日時：2015年5月13日（水） 12:10～12:50

Hiroko Yamamoto （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

We are interested in a point-condensation phenomenon in solutions of a spatially heterogeneous reaction-diffusion equation. This means that distribution of a solution concentrates in a very narrow region around a finitely many points. Hence, it is important to find the candidates for the concentration points since we can know the shape of concentrating solutions. In this talk, we introduce the location of concentration points and the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the points.

日時：2015年3月11日（水） 12:10～12:50

Nguyen Thai Tat Hoan （Graduate School of Advanced Mathematical Sciences, Meiji University）Abstract:

Origami is a forming process from flat papers to 3D shape by following steps: Shape → Partition → Making crease pattern → Cutting material → Folding → Connecting by glue. In this study, a new manufacturing method called Origami-forming is developed, based on traditional Origami approach. The new method follows the same steps as Origami, applying for wider rank of material (soft and hard material such as aluminum, high tensile steel, etc), and folding by a reconfigurable robot system. If the method is successful, it will allow to produce object in short time and get higher stiffness. In this study, the Origami-forming is applied into Truss Core Panel(TCP) manufacturing, to get the shape that is impossible to be produce by current technology, and acountermeasure to reduce the springback is considered. Secondly, a grooving technique inspired fromtradition origami is proposed to bend the material easier than before, hence allow for a dual-arm robot can produce many cases of shape. A optimization process based on Response surface methodology is built to search for best shape of groove. Next, designing handling system and decision-making process are carried out. Modeling and simulation by FEM is used to confirm forming process.

日時：2015年2月18日（水） 12:10～12:50

Mohammad Osman Gani （Graduate School of Advanced Mathematical Sciences, Meiji University）Abstract:

We are interested in the existence and stability of periodic traveling waves in two-variable excitable reaction-diffusion systems numerically. We introduce a system of reaction-diffusion equations to mimic the cardiac electrical activities. Our results based on the method of continuation show a stability change of Eckhaus type of the periodic traveling waves. There are two families of periodic traveling waves:fast and slow. The fast family is stable in the case of standard FitzHugh-Nagumo excitable system. However, we observe that the fast family becomes unstable in our model. Consequently, it bifurcates to an oscillating wave. We explain this phenomenon by numerically calculating the essential spectra of the periodic traveling waves. Moreover, we study the stability of the periodic traveling waves for the Aliev-Panfilov excitable system and compare its results with the proposed model. This is a joint work with Toshiyuki Ogawa in Meiji University.

日時：2015年1月28日（水） 12:10～12:50

Ijioma Ekeoma Rowland （Meiji University, MIMS）Abstract:

We are interested in the upscaling of a slow smoldering combustion process, involving a nonlinear chemical reaction of a solid fuel and an oxidizer on the pore surfaces of a heterogeneous porous media. We introduce the two-scale expansion with drift to derive the upscaled system of equations. Specially, we use this approach to study more general velocity fields arising from dominant convection regime of the flow.

日時：2014年11月5日（水） 12:10～12:50

Tommaso Scotti （Graduate School of Advanced Mathematical Sciences, Meiji University）Abstract:

Blooms of freshwater cyanobacteria are a worldwide spread environmental issue. In fact, some cyanobacteria can produce a variety of toxins that are harmful to a wide range of organisms, including humans. Therefore, monitoring and understanding the dynamics of harmful algal blooms is tremendously important because of their potential impact on drinking and recreational waters.

Despite toxin producing planktonic species are generally expected to be poor competitors for resources, dense blooms of toxic cyanobacteria, such asMicrocystis, do often occur in nature. We employ a Lotka-Volterra reaction-diffusion system in order to investigate the coupled role of toxicity and zooplankton's predation in the persistence of the toxic species, and to study the mechanisms behind the formation of spatially local toxic blooms. We show that the presence of a toxic prey may destabilize the spatially homogeneous coexistence and trigger the formation of spatial patterns. We also show that local blooms more likely occur when predators avoid the toxic prey and the toxicity is at an intermediate level.

日時：2014年9月24日（水） 12:10～12:50

Kohta Suzuno （Graduate School of Advanced Mathematical Sciences, Meiji University）

Abstract:

In this talk many types of spontaneous pattern formation in human flow are shown. It is well known that biological entities (fish, birds, ants etc.) behave "as one" and show amazing order without any central controlling unit. Recent development of mathematical science has revealed that the collective motion of pedestrian could also be viewed as a self-organized system. Actually, we can observe self-organized lanes, arches and various structures in simulations and experiments ｏｆ pedestrians, and they are ｎｉｃｅ eｘａmples of the spontaneous order iｎ non-equilibrium finite particle systems. ln this presentation, we review some of the self-organized phenomena observed in crowd simulation and give possible explanations to them via mathematical modeling.

日時：2014年9月10日（水） 12:10～12:50

Takamichi Sushida （Meiji University, MIMS）

Abstract:

Phyllotaxis is the arrangements of leaves, florets and other organs of plants. In particular, it is well known that typical phyllotactic patterns which appear to plants such as sunflower and pine cone are intimately related to the golden section and Fibonacci sequence. In the classical subject of phyllotaxis, helical models of the cylinder and spiral models of the disk were studied by using the Voronoi diagram and the optimal circle packing, etc. As one of plane tilings, Akio Hizume devised triangular spiral tilings called Fibonacci tornado. Ｔｈｅｙ are tilings which admit a transitive action by a similarity transformation generated by the golden section. Moreover, he presented origami developments of Fibonacci Tornado by one sheet. In this presentation, we will introduce mathematical researches of spiral tilings with phyllotactic properties. In particular, we will consider spiral tilings given as a Voronoi diagram.

日時：2014年8月19日（火） 12:10～12:50

Ryo Ooizumi （Meiji University, MIMS）

Abstract:

Life history of organisms is exposed to uncertainty generated by internal and external stochasticities. Internal stochasticity is generated by the randomness in each individual life history, such as randomness in food intake, genetic character and size growth rate, whereas external stochasticity is due to the environment. For instance, it is known that the external stochasticity tends to affect population growth rate negatively. It has been shown in a recent theoretical study that internal stochasticity can affect population growth rate positively or negatively. However, internal stochasticity has not been the min subject of researches. Taking account of effect of internal stochasticity on the population growth rate, the fittest organism has the optimal control of life history affected by the stochasticity in the habitat. The study of this control is known as the optimal life schedule problems. ln order to analyze the optimal control under internal stochasticity, we need to make use of "Stochastic Control Theory" in the optimal life schedule problems. There is, however, no such kind of theory unifying optimal life history and internal stochasticity. This study focuses on an extension ｏｆ optimal life schedule problems to unify control theory of internal stochasticity into linear demographic models . We apply our theory to a two-resource utilization model for semelparity. Consequently, we show that the diversity of resources is important for species in a case.

日時：2014年7月16日（水） 12:10～12:50

Yujing Liao （Meiji University, MIMS）

Abstract:

Computer-based surface models are indispensable in several fields of science and engineering. Reverse engineering is the process of reconstructing digital representations from physical models. Rapid modeling the objects from 2-3 dimensional data is very important task in the scientific research and the market applications. The presented approach is connected to the modeling of 3D objects from the given images. In this talk I will present our technique and related with it applications of the results. (co-researcher: Maria Savchenko)

日時：2013年11月20日（水） 12:10～12:50

Shintaro Kondo （Meiji University, MIMS）

Abstract:

My research theme is plasma phenomena appearing in nuclear fusion research. When l was a student of the master course of fundamental science and technology at Keio university, I selected it and have researched it. There are many instabilities in plasma phenomena, and drift wave turbulence is a kind of plasma instabilities. In this talk I will speak about plasma phenomena, application, my motivation and the point of my research.

日時：2013年10月23日（水） 12:10～12:50

Yutaka Kobayashi （Meiji University, MIMS）

Abstract:

One of the most prominent aspects of modern humans' culture, compared with other animals, is said to be its cumulative nature. Namely, humans' culture evolves from generation to generation through accumulation of modifications by individuals. The cumulativeness, however, is not really useful to distinguish modern humans from extinct human species because the latter must also have had cumulative culture. For example, the Levallois flint-knapping technique of Neanderthals for making stone tools is so complex that any single individual could never have invented it alone. One key feature to characterize modern humans' culture then may be its explosive evolution rate. My recent preliminary analysis suggests that explosive culture is possible if knowledge promotes innovation. The presence of a cognitive ability that allows such a feedback however remains to be confirmed. I argue in this talk that "creativity" may be one of cognitive abilities with this property.

Pattern Formation in a Reaction-Diffusion-Advection System

日時：2013年7月3日（水） 12:00～12:50

出原浩史 （明治大学MIMS研究員）

Abstract:

拡散の速さの異なる2種の物質が適当な条件のもとで反応し合うことにより自己組織的に周期的空間構造を作り出すというTuringのパラドックスは、今なお多くの研究を生み出す源となっている。本セミナーでは、Turingのパラドックス、つまり反応拡散系と呼ばれる系に現れる拡散誘導不安定性という一見不可思議な現象を紹介し、それに関連する最近行っているパターン形成に閏する研究についてもお話ししたい。

Modeling Cultural Evolution on Prehistoric Archaeological Data

日時：2013年6月5日（水） 12:00～12:50

青木健一 （明治大学研究・知財戦略機構客員教授）

Abstract:

先史時代とは文字(ましてはマスコミ)以前の時代であり、文化の伝播は人と人の直接の出会いによって主に起きた｡従って、先史時代の文化のダイナミックスは、現代の文化のダイナミックスと異なることが予想される｡本発表では、先史考古学データが物語る2つの現象について、数理モデルを用いた解釈を試みる。 １つ目が、中東からヨーロッパへの初期農耕の地理的伝播である｡Ammerman＆Cavalli-Sforza(1971)によるこの伝播の等速性の発見を受けて、我々(Aoki,Shida,＆Shigesada、l996)は、ヨーロッパに先住する狩猟採集民が進出する農民との接触によって農耕に転向する、反応拡散モデルを提案した｡このモデルから得られる予測は、諸経験的知見と矛盾しない。 ２つ目が、旧人ネアンデルタールと新人サピエンスで異なるとされる文化進化速度である。我々(Aoki,Lehmann,＆Feldman、2011)は、集団遺伝学の分子進化理論を転用して文化進化速度を理論的に定義した｡また、その一応用例として、新人では考古学的に実証されている一対多伝達(一人の熟練者が多くの初心者に教示する)のモデルを提案し先行研究が主張する文化進化の加速効果、文化進化速度に対する集団サイズの影響などについて検討した。

Origami Theory to Design Deployable Structures

日時：2013年5月15日（水） 12:00～12:50

石田祥子 （明治大学特任講師）

Abstract:

折り畳み傘や折り畳み自転車など、“折り畳み”と名のつく製品は私たちの生活になじみ深い。“折り畳む”ことにより持ち運びがしやすく、また省収納スペースを図ることができる。本講演では、曰本古来の文化であり芸術である折紙に着目し、折り畳みが自在な構造物を数学的に設計する手法について論じる。山折線と谷折線を規則的に配置し、軸方向に折り畳み自在な円筒や円錐、中心周りに巻き取ることのできる円形膜などを紹介する。

Propagation Speed of a Starting Wave in a Queue of Pedestrians

日時：2013年5月1日（水） 12:00～12:50

友枝明保 （明治大学MIMS研究員）

Abstract:

渋滞を解消するためには、何を考えれば良いだろうか？ 例えば、高速道路での車の渋滞を考えた場合、渋滞の後方に加わる車の台数を前方から抜けて行く台数よりも少なくすることができれば、渋滞列を短くすることができる。つまり、渋滞にゆっくりと近づき(slow-in)、渋滞から素早く抜け出す(fast-out)ことが実現できれば、渋滞を解消できると言える。本講演では、fast-outに注目し、人が行列から動き出す際の反応の連鎖(発進波)の伝播速度について、その特徴を数理モデルと実証実験の双方から議論する。